psychological science vs psychology

Last Updated on January 18, 2023

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Psychological Science Vs Psychology

is Psychology?

Psychology is the study of the mind, as well as the behavior of humans from early childhood to old age. The science has evolved over the millennia from the Greek philosophers, namely Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Preceding these famous people was Pythagoras (6th Century BCE), who is credited with coining the word – philosopher. Known for his mathematical prowess, notably his theorem for calculating right triangles, Pythagoras was also a holistic practitioner and therapist, particularly music therapy. Through experimentation, he concluded that stringed instruments provided the most soothing effect, as opposed to a wind instrument, such as the flute.

Philosophy is a type of social science, like sociology or psychology. Ancient philosophy examined how one should live within society.

The evolution of psychology created many branches. Examples are clinical, abnormal, forensic, child, geriatric, social, experimental, general, and cognitive psychology. The field can take you into applied psychology, psychophysics, the psychology of religion, neuropsychology, and neuroscience, and more. Students can begin specializing in one of these areas during their undergraduate studies.

What is Psychological Science?

There are subtle differences between psychological and psychological science. The latter involves the study of behavior, communication, and dealing with people. Therefore, the major may be of interest to anyone pursuing a career that requires frequent interaction with others.

The Association for Psychological Science publishes its Psychological Science journal based on empirical research that encompasses a range of topics in the science of psychology. The articles cover social, cognitive, developmental, and psychology behavioral. A perusal of reports published in 2019 in the journal appears to cover the same or similar subjects one would expect in a psychology journal. For example, a study examined individual emotional responses to traumatic events, such as natural disasters and terrorist attacks. Another research report addresses the influence of violent video games on aggressive behavior.

psychology vs psychological

Similarities and Differences

  • Psychological science is rooted in the study of the concepts of psychology.
  • The curriculum of each includes a concentration of courses in topics relevant to the science of psychology, i.e., behavioral aspects.
  • Each offers areas of specialization, as mentioned in the above material. Some of the concentrations may differ. For example, one titled Clinical Psychological Science delves in a series of courses whose first two words are Psychology of – followed by religion, suicide, adult life, sexuality, prejudice, and others. More on this later in the post.
  • Both provide opportunities to proceed to a master’s degree in psychology. There is a Master of Science in Psychological Science available that explores research practices and applied psychology.
  • A master’s degree in either major may require applicants to have a bachelor’s degree in psychology. Otherwise, you may have to complete specified prerequisite courses.
  • Both majors prepare graduates for careers in psychology-related professions. The settings include mental health agencies/departments, non-profits, counseling, hospitals, teaching, and research.
  • Individuals who prefer a Bachelor of Arts program should focus on psychology as their major. Generally, this option has more liberal arts classes in the General Requirements, instead of natural sciences and math.
  • Psychological science typically has at least one lab class. The Bachelor of Arts in Psychological Science at California State University-San Marcos has two lab courses from a list of seven. Their B.A. contradicts the previous bullet as the curriculum does have mathematics and natural science in the General Requirements. Admission also stipulates that students should have four years of high school English and three of mathematics.
psy vs psych sc

In the third bullet above, we referenced concentrations in psychological science. Western Kentucky University (WKU) offers a Bachelor of Science in Psychological Science (PSYS) with a choice of eight specialties. Examples are Developmental Science, Quantitative Psychology, Biobehavioral Psychology, and Applied Psychological Science. Some of the courses in the latter involve sport psychology, motivation, history of psychology, decision-making, and psychology of prejudice.

The WKU curricula of the eight concentrations mirror those offered in most B.S. programs in psychology. The common subjects are social psychology, abnormal psychology, mental processes, psychotherapy, language, and cognition. Psychological science degrees tend to provide more courses in research and statistics in psychology.

What is the Difference Between a BA in Psychology and a BS in Psychology?

The chief difference between the bachelor of arts and bachelor of science is the focus of the degree. This involves taking different sets of classes toward earning either of the degrees. Arts students, generally, focus their studies across a broader spectrum of topics while science students specialize in a certain area. Neither degree is any “better” than the other. Both train and educate students to be valuable professionals in a growing field.

There is a big difference between a BA in psychology and a BS in psychology. Keep reading to learn about the notable differences between these two useful degrees and how to choose the right one for you

Psychology is the study of both individual and group thought. The psychologist also studies the patterns of behavior that go along with different areas of thought. The word psychology itself comes from the Greek. “Logos” means the knowledge of something, and “psyche” means of the mind. Before the beginning of the 20th century, psychology was an unknown science. Of course, people talked about how others behaved since time immemorial, but it took the early pioneers of the field to make the study of behavior mainstream.

Psychology is a diverse field. Forensic psychologists focus on the thought processes behind crime. Evolutionary psychologists study the development of human thought processes and behaviors throughout history. Clinical psychologists see patients and treat their mental illnesses through therapy.

As is commonly known, psychologists are not medical doctors and cannot treat patients with drugs or surgery. Many psychologists, however, go to medical school to become psychiatrists. Some of these choose to become neuropsychologists so that they can apply their medical skills toward treating people with head injuries or nervous system disorders.

Good Schools for Bachelor’s Degrees in Psychology

ba in psychology

The number 1 school to get a bachelor’s degree in psychology in the U.S. is Purdue University in Indiana. The school offers degrees in both arts and science when it comes to psychology. These degrees require 14 psychology classes and a total of 120 credits to complete. In both cases, Purdue University has an honors program, and students in that program or who transfer into it need to maintain a 3.5 GPA to remain in it, making it one of the most demanding undergraduate programs in the country in any discipline.

Harvard University, which is No. 2, also requires a 3.5 GPS from students who pursue the cognitive psychology track. Studying how people learn is necessarily a highly demanding field, and the GPA requirement is more than reasonable. The university also allows students to choose a secondary focus for their degrees without having to declare a full minor. Instead, they take five courses from a selection available for that secondary focus.

Other colleges and universities, such as Berea College and the University of Georgia, have mathematical requirements for their psychology students. This caters to the bachelor of science students, mostly, because they’re the ones who are doing the research, collating the data, and drawing inferences from the mathematical data.

Best Value Schools ranks these schools by various criteria, including cost of attendance, graduation rate, rigor of coursework, likelihood of acceptance when criteria are met, and a combination of degree options and specializations.

Bachelor of Arts in Psychology

By and large, a Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology focuses more on liberal arts than science and psychology classes. Students will be able to study the humanities, social sciences and even a foreign language. A Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology is the perfect choice for a student who plans to enter the workforce directly after completing their undergraduate degree. These students may choose to earn a master’s degree in a non-psychology field such as law, business, social work or management. These students will use their limited psychology background to assist them in a non-psychology job.

Aside from the dozen or so psychology courses a student takes while pursuing a bachelor of arts degree, the student must complete core courses and electives. The electives could be that foreign language, classes in art or music, or even literature. Humanities courses, as the name suggests, focus on the human influence on society and, by extension in this instance, the field of psychology. Most schools develop a curriculum that doesn’t present psychology in a vacuum. Savvy instructors know that psychology is an elastic discipline and that “the rules” don’t apply equally to every person. The best instructors teach critical thinking skills as well as “chapter and verse” of psychological theory.

A Typical Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Degree

A Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology will focus on general psychology classes. This will include classes on animal learning, human cognition, sociology and human relationships. For example, students may study the history of behaviorism and classical conditioning, while a Bachelor of Science student would actually design and conduct a simple lab-based experiment. Students will be exposed to the popular fields of social, clinical, cognitive and developmental psychology. In fact, students will learn the basics of all the major psychology branches, including forensic, education, personality, abnormal and cross-culture psychology.

A Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology will focus on general psychology classes. This will include classes on animal learning, human cognition, sociology, and human relationships. For example, students may study the history of behaviorism and classical conditioning. A student earning a bachelor of science would instead design and conduct an experiment that seeks to test a hypothesis about the various psychological theories. Students will receive instruction regarding the fields of social, clinical, cognitive, and developmental psychology. Students will also learn the basics of all the major psychology branches, including forensic, education, personality, abnormal, and cross-culture.

Bachelor of Science in Psychology

ba in psychology

The biggest difference between a BA in psychology and a BS in psychology is that the latter focuses on research, science and statistics. This degree is suited for students who plan on entering medical school or earning a graduate degree in science-based psychology. Thus, a Bachelor of Science degree concentrates on advanced math and science courses. Students pursuing a Bachelor of Science in psychology will take more hands-on lab, research and statistics classes. Classes will connect applied psychology concepts to empirical research and reporting methods.

A Typical Bachelor of Science in Psychology Degree

Students in a bachelor of science program won’t just study theory but will also study and perform research on memory, perception, and cognitive development. They will learn about cutting-edge research techniques and will also study the use of technology to analyze brain function. Further, they’ll perform experiments regarding the brain’s internal processes. A good example would be studying subjects’ brain patterns while performing meditation.

Students studying these various disciplines will have the opportunity to delve into the psychology of health, consumer psychology, and physical psychology. Although many students with this kind of degree go on to be practicing therapists, more often, they perform research in clinical settings. A few become neuropsychologists and might even pursue a medical degree in graduate school to become psychiatrists.

The Outlook for Psychologists

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2019 provides the most recent data. The median salary for a psychologist is $80,370. At the low end of the spectrum, the bottom 10% earn just $45,380. The top 10% earn $132,070. As examples of different psychology practitioners, industrial-organizational psychologists earn $92,880 annually while clinical practitioners earn $78,200.

Psychologists employed by the government earn the most when compared to other entities who hire psychologists. The amount is $96,870. Those who work for schools earn the least at $76,960. The median hourly wage is $38.64. Government psychologists and those in education work full-time. Those who hang out their own shingles may also supplement their income doing consulting work, serving as expert witnesses in court proceedings, and earning money doing research.

As far as job growth is concerned, psychology jobs are going to grow at the national average over the next 10 years, which is 3% annually. There are currently 192,000 jobs for psychologists in the United States, and the 3% growth rate means that in 10 years, the industry will have added roughly 5,700 jobs.

The Bureau recommends, too, that job applicants for the best jobs in the field of psychology have a graduate degree as well as a bachelor’s degree. This is true for applicants who have studied either the arts or science tracks of psychology. The Bureau says that people with a Ph.D. have the best prospects for acquiring the top jobs.

what is a psychological science degree


When it comes to people starting out in the field of psychology, a degree is not the only thing they’ll need if they’re going to practice as clinical psychologists. They’ll need licenses to practice too.

In most states, practicing psychology or using the title “psychologist” requires licensure. In all states and the District of Columbia, psychologists who practice independently must be licensed where they work. Each state has its own laws regarding licensing, but all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and most territories require a license if the person is going to use the title of “psychologist.” In most cases, these practitioners also need a Ph.D. in their chosen field and a couple of years’ experience as supervised interns. In most cases, these psychologists must also participate in continuing education beyond their doctorates. They must also take and pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology.

The American Board of Professional Psychologists recognizes 15 subfields under the group heading of “psychology.” The Board awards certifications in these 15 subfields based on the psychologist’s training, education, and experience. A few of the fields include couples counseling, rehabilitation psychology, and neuropsychology.

The Board certifies psychologists in these specialties in the same way as medical boards certify physicians in various disciplines. Psychiatrists might hold two such distinctions, one clinical and one medical. It’s not usually required for a psychologist to specialize to get a job, but many hospitals prefer such specialized staff. To be board-certified, a psychologist must have completed a Ph.D. Some institutions also require that such staff be published in peer-reviewed journals.

The internships that budding psychologists must complete have state-mandated rules about how long they must be, where they must be completed, and what kind of duties the candidates are allowed to perform. These vary by state, so prospective psychologists should contact their state’s board of licensure to find out the various requirements and limitations. Each state has different laws regarding the license itself. The continuing education requirement ensures that practicing psychologists keep their licenses.

Researchers who don’t practice don’t need state licenses, but they do require additional education. The bachelor’s degree is, in reality, merely a first step toward gaining employment. The doctorate is the degree that really counts because it opens up high-paying therapy positions and leading research fellowships both.

Which Degree is Best for Me?

ba in psychology

Both degrees will provide a general overview of the field of psychology. The Bachelor of Arts is an excellent choice for students who want a balance between psychology and another discipline, such as HR, marketing and health care. However, the Bachelor of Science degree offers more flexibility and diversity for students who wish to pursue psychology as their primary academic choice. In the end, it is important to select a degree that satisfies your needs, interests and career goals.


Students interested in pursuing careers in psychology should consult with their faculty advisers, and if they’re not enrolled in college yet, then they should speak with their high-school counselors. They should realize what’s required before starting down the path to becoming psychologists. The field is rewarding and interesting and requires curious students who aren’t afraid to ask either tough or pointed questions. They must also be able to think critically and be open to other points of view. Before deciding which degree is best for you, carefully assess your academic and career interests. Don’t forget that the difference between a BA in Psychology and a BS in Psychology is a matter of personal preference.

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