Last Updated on September 1, 2023Most Expensive Universities in UK for International Students
Studying abroad has become increasingly popular among students seeking to enhance their educational and career opportunities. The United Kingdom has long been regarded as a top destination for international students, boasting a rich academic heritage and renowned institutions. However, pursuing higher education in the UK can come with a hefty price tag, especially for international students who may face additional costs. In this article, we will delve into the most expensive universities in the UK for international students.
1. University of Oxford
Ranked as one of the world’s best universities, the University of Oxford is renowned for its academic excellence and tradition. However, this prestigious institution also bears a hefty price tag for international students. Fees for undergraduate programs can reach up to £34,678 per academic year,
Looking to study in the UK, but not sure what universities or cities are best suited for international students? You’ve come to the right place! Here we show you Most Expensive Universities In UK For International Students, uk university fees for international students, uk university fees for international students 2021, most expensive university in uk, most expensive universities in the world, most expensive degrees uk & top 10 most expensive universities in UK for international students and compare fees of each.
UK is the top most international student destination in the world. It has been ranked second in the QS World University Rankings 2019 and has around 50 universities ranking in the top global universities.
It is famous for its world-class higher education institutions which provide quality education to both national and international students.
Choosing between colleges in the United Kingdom (UK) is not an easy task, especially if you’re from abroad. It’s not just about going to class and learning as much as possible. There are a lot of factors that come into play when choosing a college, including price. This article seeks to expose the most expensive universities in UK for international students.
The article below can bring you the best information on Most Expensive Universities in UK for International Students,uk university fees for international students 2020 & cheapest study abroad programs. Also on infolearners, you’ll find current, related posts on cheapest universities in the world for international students, cheapest countries to study in europe.
most expensive university in uk
Known as one of the world’s leading economy, UK offers top-quality education to both domestic and international students. Numerous scholarships are awarded every year to international student, some of which could be tuition waivers, full or partial scholarship offers.
The UK is home to some of the most prestigious universities in the world. For international students, it can be a daunting task to decide which institution to attend. You must consider factors such as scholarship opportunities, campus setting, and tuition costs before you can begin to narrow down your options.
At [Blog name], we have made this process a bit easier for you. We’ve compiled a list of the most expensive universities in the UK for international students so that you can get an idea of where not to apply if money is your main concern.
The league table below displays the tuition fees for the top-ranked universities in the UK. The figures displayed below are the range of fees charged for the universities’ undergraduate programmes.
|University||UK Ranking||TEF Rating||Tuition Fees|
|University of Cambridge||1||Gold||£22,227-58,038|
|University of Oxford||2||Gold||£26,770 -37,510|
|University of St Andrews||3||Gold||£25,100-32,910|
|London School of Economics and Poli…||4||Bronze||£22,430|
|Imperial College London||5||Gold||£32,000-45,300|
|University of Bath||9||Gold||£18,900-23,400|
|UCL (University College London)||10||Silver||£19,970-34,660|
Tuition fees are an important factor when choosing a university. Many university league tables factor in the university’s research, facilities and academic services expenditure when determining university rankings. A university that costs more usually invests heavily in its facilities and other services that will improve its students’ experience on campus.
The UK is home to some of the top universities in the world and consistently produces world-leading research. Without a doubt, the prestige of studying in a top UK university comes at a high financial cost, but it pays by giving its graduates a solid foundation in life with abundant opportunities.
Note: Fees shown below are per annum for international students.https://e8127354523fb7bce5e7878baca2196a.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html
University of Bath – £18,900-23,400
Ranked as the 10th best university in the UK, the University of Bath is not only known for its academic excellence, it is also a lively campus that has been rated as one of the safest UK campuses and the university provides great support for international students. Bath is the number one university in the UK for Marketing, offering programmes with a professional placement year which bolsters graduate employability and enriches the students’ learning experience. You could read more about the University of Bath’s Marketing courses on their website here.
Loughborough University – £19,100-23,100
Located in the heart of the UK, Loughborough University is among the top-ranked universities in the UK. The university boasts excellent graduate prospects which it achieves through practice-oriented teaching and by hosting one of the largest career fairs in the UK every year. Loughborough’s Student Union is known for its community spirit and the university has a diverse student body with nearly 20% of its students hailing from outside of the UK and EU.https://e8127354523fb7bce5e7878baca2196a.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html
Durham University – £21,730-22,900
Durham is ranked 6th in the UK with 31 subjects ranked in the top ten for the country. Durham University offers prospective students a broad range of subjects, an excellent student experience, and the opportunity to complete a research or industry placement anywhere in the world. Studying there lets you experience the city’s rich culture, histories and the surrounding lush landscapes. Additionally, Durham invests in supporting facilities which ensure that students have easy access to quality services on campus.
London School of Economics and Political Science – £22,430
LSE is renowned for its excellent graduate employability and it is the only UK university that is dedicated to the humanities. Located in the heart of London, LSE has an incredibly diverse student body, with nearly 50% of its students hailing from outside of the UK and EU. The university is among the top ten ranked universities in the UK for ten subjects which include Law, Accounting & Finance, Politics, Sociology, and more.
UCL (University College London) – £19,970-34,660
One of the largest universities in the UK, UCL is ranked among the top universities in the UK and in the world. UCL welcomes over 18,000 international students, which easily makes it one of the most diverse universities in the UK. Despite its enormous size, UCL provides well for its students as it has some of the lowest student-to-staff ratios among UK universities and it scored well for academic services spend, meaning that the libraries and IT services at UCL are top-notch.
University of St Andrews – £25,100-32,910
Located in Scotland, the University of St Andrews is one of few ancient universities in the UK. The university considers itself a “Scottish university with a global orientation”, as it welcomes over 40% of its students and staff from all over the world while maintaining its distinct culture. Ranked as the number four university in the UK, St Andrews offers a wide range of subjects, with 25 of them ranked among the top ten courses in the UK. St Andrews scored well for academic services spend in league tables, which means that it invests in providing quality library and IT services for its students.
University of Oxford – £26,770 -37,510
The University of Oxford is one of the top-ranked universities in the world. Its unique approach to teaching in the tertiary level lends itself to the university’s success – Oxford has a personalised tutorial system which ensures students get enough contact hours with their tutors. This might be the very reason why Oxford has ranked among the top ten for nearly 40 of its courses. The university has scored well for academic services spend in league tables, so students can expect good library and IT services at Oxford.
University of Warwick – £21,220-43,170
The University of Warwick is ranked 61st in the world and among the top ten universities in the UK. The campus university boasts excellent graduate employability and it is well-known for its quality of research. Warwick ranks among the top ten universities in the UK for 18 subjects, including Economics, Business and Management Studies, and Philosophy.
Imperial College London – £32,000-45,300
Imperial has the top score among all UK universities for academic services spend, which means that the university invests heavily in providing academic services such as libraries and IT. Students at Imperial can expect to find world-class facilities and easy access to academic resources.
University of Cambridge – £22,227-58,038
The famed University of Cambridge has some of the most expensive tuition fees compared to the other top UK universities. Cambridge also scores well for facilities and academic services spend – this means that tuition fees are invested into improving the university’s academic services such as the library and IT infrastructure, as well as supporting facilities such as career counselling, health, and sports services.
Check the other tables below for the most expensive UK universities for Medicine, Business and Law programmes.
Cheapest University in UK for International Students 2020
UK is a preferred destination for global students due to the quality of education and opportunities available. But this does not mean that it is an affordable higher studies option. Many of the UK universities are extremely expensive and are out of reach for most international students. Not all UK universities are expensive, there is a wide range of affordable options as well. Read on to know more about the most expensive universities in the UK for international students.
Which universities offer the cheapest postgraduate courses for international students? See the top ten universities that offer the most affordable courses in the UK.
- University of Suffolk
University of Suffolk campus
This very young university in Ipswich opened its doors in 2007 and was only granted independence in 2016. In the past, it has worked with the universities of East Anglia and Essex to award its degrees.
The international office at Suffolk claims its international students become part of a global network as well as benefit from the extensive student support services.
Search through postgraduate courses at the University of Suffolk.
- Leeds Trinity University
Students chatting in modern university building
Leeds Trinity University has a strong focus on employability, and all students benefit from excellent support services. Postgraduate alumni have become published authors, award-winning journalists and pioneers in their research fields.
Search through postgraduate courses at Leeds Trinity University.
- Liverpool Hope University
Students walking outside of brick Liverpool Hope campus building
Alongside affordable tuition fees for international students, Liverpool Hope University offers a range of enticing postgraduate courses to help boost your career prospects.
As a student at the university, you’ll be able to enjoy a peaceful campus life while living near to the thriving city of Liverpool.
Search through postgraduate courses at Liverpool Hope University.
- University College of Osteopathy
Physio massaging a woman’s shoulder
International students receive a thorough and affordable education at University College of Osteopathy. Postgraduate options include an MSc in Osteopathy, a PGCert in Academic and Clinical Education and a PGCert in Animal Osteopathy.
Search through postgraduate courses at University College of Osteopathy.
- University of Cumbria
Unviersity of cumbria
With international postgraduate fees lower than most other universities and a setting that lies within some of Britain’s trademark stunning countryside, the University of Cumbria is an attractive proposition for those looking to further their education in the UK.
Search through postgraduate degrees at the University of Cumbria.
- Royal Veterinary College
Students at Royal Veterinary College looking after a horse
The fees for the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) are just £9,750 for the year. RVC has both a central London campus and a more rural setting in Hertfordshire, meaning you can get the best of both worlds. You’ll also have the chance to work with a fascinating selection of animals during your time there.
Search through postgraduate degrees at Royal Veterinary College.
- Teesside University
Teeside university campus
Teesside University offers international postgraduate students low fees in comparison to other universities in the UK.
You can pick from a range of course options, and benefit from a recently developed £275m city-centre campus.
Search through postgraduate courses at Teesside University.
- Middlesex University
Middlesex University campus
With one of the lowest fees in the UK for international postgraduate students, Middlesex University aims to equip you with the skills you need to fast-track your career after studying.
Fees can be as low as £6,600, so as an international student, you can focus on your studies without worrying too much about breaking the bank.
Search through postgraduate degrees at Middlesex University.
- Leeds Beckett University
Leeds Beckett university campus
Leeds Beckett University offers over 190 affordable postgraduate courses in a range of subjects from Accounting to Sonic Arts. The cost of your degree will vary depending on what you study.
You’ll benefit from the expertise of the Graduate School, where a specialist team provides an inclusive environment in which postgraduate students can thrive.
Search for postgraduate courses at Leeds Beckett University.
- AECC University College
Glasgow School of Art campus
AECC University College in Bournemouth has the lowest postgraduate fees for international students in the UK, with the cheapest courses starting at just £4,800.
Staffordshire University fees for International Students
Coming to study in the UK is a dream for many international students, but it’s no secret that tuition fees can be a bit steep. That’s why we’ve put together this handy list of the ten most expensive universities in the UK for international students—so you can plan your studies accordingly!
|Undergraduate (Nursing, Paramedic Science, Operating Department Practice and Midwifery)||£18,000*|
|Law LPC and LLM combined||£12,300|
|London based masters courses||£16,500|
|Undergraduate (Nursing, Paramedic Science, Operating Department Practice and Midwifery)||£18,000*|
|Postgraduate taught courses||£14,500|
|Master of Business Administration (MBA)||£15,500|
|Law LPC and LLM combined||£12,300|
|Law LPC solely||£10,900|
*per year of study
Scholarships and discounts
We offer a wide range of scholarships and discounts for international students to help fund your studies. If you would like to read more about what scholarships are available to you, and to see if you meet the criteria to be eligible, you visit our dedicated scholarships page.
UK tuition fees for international students
Looking to study in the UK, but worried about the cost? Well, we’ve got some bad news for you. The majority of universities in the UK are not cheap, and international students can expect to pay even higher fees than their British counterparts.
That being said, there is still hope that you can get into a program that won’t cost you an arm and a leg. In this article, we’ll talk about the most expensive universities in the UK for international students, as well as some alternatives that are more affordable.
The UK is one of the most popular destinations for international students, and you can see why. It’s home to some world-class institutions and culturally diverse cities, but it comes at a cost.
With tuition fees regularly exceeding £10,000 a year, and student living costs, travel and books on top of that, you need to budget carefully and make sure the benefits of the degree are worth the costs.
If you fancy joining the hundreds of thousands of international students who study in the UK every year, then here’s a lowdown of all the costs you’ll need to take into account.
n 2020/21, annual tuition fees for international undergraduate students in the UK* started at £9,250 (US $12,870) and rose to as much as £30,548 (US $42,500), or up to £64,652 (US $89,950) for medical degrees.
However, most universities’ fees for the majority of subjects fell somewhere between £10,000 – £20,000 (US $13,910 – $27,830). We’ll go into a little more detail later.
Annual tuition fees for international postgraduate students started from as little as £4,800 (US $6,680), rising to as much as £36,984 (US $51,440), or £49,950 (US $69,470) for medical degrees and £59,490 (US $82,740) for MBAs.
But as with undergraduate fees, most fall within a certain range. The majority of postgraduate courses at most universities charged between £12,000 – £20,000 (US $16,690 – $27,820) in 2020/21 and again, we’ll expand on this in a moment.* All figures sourced from the Reddin Survey of University Tuition Fees 2020/21. All currency conversions were rounded to the nearest $10 and were correct as of April 2021.
As you can see, tuition fees for international students vary hugely across universities, courses and levels of study – and, as such, it’s difficult to calculate an exact cost.
Although there are no exact rules, here are four things you’ll want to take into consideration when pricing up your degree:
- The more prestigious a university, the more expensive it will likely be. Check out the list of the top 10 UK universities to get an idea of which are considered the best.
- Medical and science degrees, especially those which involve expensive equipment or access to laboratories, will be substantially more expensive than lecture-based degrees in Arts and Humanities.
- Since tuition fees are charged on a yearly basis, how long your course is will also be a major factor in its overall cost.
- The level of study might also affect the cost – although it’s not always the case, postgraduate and doctoral degrees can be more expensive than undergraduate.
However, while we can’t give you a precise figure, what we can do is give you some averages so you have a rough idea of what to expect. For exact prices, you should contact the individual universities you’re interested in.
International undergraduate tuition fees
Most undergraduate courses run for three years, although some can run for longer.
‘Sandwich courses’ have an additional year in industry, for example, while in Scotland it’s the norm for undergraduate degrees to last four years.
Various sources estimate that the average annual cost of an undergraduate degree for an international student is around £12,000 a year (US $16,690)* – although as we outlined above, some can cost significantly more than that.
If we take the cost of tuition in isolation, this means the average degree will cost £36,000 (US $50,070)* over three years, or £48,000 (US $66,760)* for a four-year course. Of course, this doesn’t include the cost of living which will amount to several thousands of pounds every year in itself.
International postgraduate tuition fees
If you decide you want to complete some further study after your undergraduate degree, you can expect to pay higher fees. This is particularly the case for master’s or PhDs, which are popular and well-sought-after postgraduate courses.
As these courses are naturally more specialised, there might be some additional costs you need to be aware of, like specialist research equipment or resources. Always check with individual universities for these.
And just with an undergraduate degree, costs will vary according to what kind of subject you’ll be studying.
Times Higher Education calculates the average cost of tuition as shown in the table below. And as master’s degrees tend to just last for one year, these averages also represent the total cost of tuition.
Average postgraduate tuition fees for international students
|Type of degree||Tuition fees (£)||Tuition fees (US $)*|
*All currency conversions were rounded to the nearest $10 and were correct as of April 2021.
Don’t forget that scholarships and bursaries are much more common for postgraduate degrees than at undergraduate level, so it’s more likely you’ll be able to receive financial support to help you fund your studies.
Head over to our guide to scholarships and bursaries for international students to see what’s available.
Many students also come to the UK to study a language at one of the country’s many language schools.
Prices vary across institutions but you should expect to be paying around £70 – £100 a week (US $97 – $154*) for a standard full-time course (15 hours) or around £1,300 ($1,808*) for a more intensive course lasting a few weeks or months. Again, prices vary depending on where you study and the service provided.
Check out Foreign Students for a directory of English Language schools in the UK.
Bear in mind that some courses will be accredited (i.e. they award recognised qualifications), and they will likely be more expensive than non-accredited ones.
most expensive universities in the world
International students looking to study in the UK have a lot of great options. Of course, we believe [school name] is the best choice for international students looking for a well-rounded, quality education. But, we’re not here to tell you where to study (although we encourage you to check out our site for more information about [school name]).
Quality education has become essential to keep up with the changing times of the digital world. Therefore, it is critical to obtain the best quality education and a higher degree from a respected and reputable institution. But, have you ever wondered which is the most expensive university in the world? And does the high cost of such expensive universities imply better education? To find out the solution, we have picked out the most expensive universities, their average fees as well as financial aids offered! Here we have enlisted the top 10 most expensive universities in the world:
|University||QS World Rankings 2022||Country||Average Cost of Attendance for the year 2021-2022|
|Harvey Mudd College, California||USA||$79,539 (INR 59,11,139.63)|
|Johns Hopkins University||USA||$58,720 to $73,980 (INR 43,64,349.32 to INR 54,98,707.76)|
|Parsons School of Design||USA||$25,861 (INR 19,21,968.83) Per semester|
|Dartmouth College||USA||$81,501 (INR 60,57,089)|
|Columbia University||19||USA||$1,768 (INR 1,31,403) per credit hour|
|New York University||USA||$80,878 (INR 60,11,030)|
|Sarah Lawrence College||USA||$58,936 (INR 43,79,563.63)|
|Wesleyan University||USA||$61,449 (INR 45,66,305)|
|The University of Chicago||10||USA||$57,642 (INR 42,83,610.47)|
|Claremont McKenna University||USA||$78,717 (INR 58,48,869)|
Harvey Mudd College
Average Fees: $79,539 (58,93,442 INR)
Harvey Mudd College is considered the world’s most expensive university in the world. It is also one of the most costly universities in the USA. Established in 1955, it offers the following majors:
- Off-campus Major (Ocm)
- Chemistry And Biology
- Individual Program Of Studies
- Mathematics And Physics
- Computer Science
- Mathematical And Computational Biology
- Computer Science And Mathematics
When it comes to financial aid, the annual financial assistance award from Harvey Mudd College is approximately $43,764 (combination of grants, scholarships, loans, and work-study), of which roughly $35,259 (includes need-based and merit-based awards) falls in grants and scholarships aid.
Johns Hopkins University
Average Fees: $68,852 (51,77,560.23 INR)
This is the world’s second most expensive university in the world and is a private research college located in Baltimore, Maryland. The institution was named for its first benefactor, the American merchant, abolitionist, and philanthropist Johns Hopkins, who founded it in 1876.
Johns Hopkins University offers courses in the following majors –
- Biomedical Engineering
- Artificial Intelligence
- Computer Science
- Environmental Planning
Financial Aid: Johns Hopkins University provides financial aid to the aspirants in the form of Need-Based Awards and Merit-Based Awards. The average need-based scholarship or grant awarded to first-year students is generally around $52,523.
Parsons School of Design
Average Fees: $67,266 (49,95,659.21 INR)
Another key mention in our list of the most expensive universities in the world, Parsons School of Design is a private art and design college in New York City’s Lower Manhattan neighbourhood of Greenwich Village. It is one of the five colleges of the New School and is also amongst the best art schools in the world.
Parsons School of Design offers courses in the following majors –
- Creative Writing & Journalism
- Fine Arts
- Graphic & Digital Designing
- Humanities & Social Sciences
- Interior Designing
- Leadership, Management & Marketing
- Media & Film Studies
Financial Aid: The university provides some funding; the government offers others, and private sources still offer others. Another type of financial assistance is merit-based (scholarships for academic or creative ability). The school also offers need-based (scholarships as documented on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA).
Average Fees: $67,044 (49,79,171.89 INR)
Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, Dartmouth College is the ninth-oldest higher education institution in the United States and nine colleges that existed before the American Revolution. It is also counted as one of the most expensive universities in the world and is featured as a private college in the Ivy League.
Here are the most popular specialisations offered by this college:
- African and African-American Studies
- Art History
- Asian Societies, Cultures, and Languages
- Biological Sciences – Undergraduate
- Mathematics – Undergraduate
- Medieval and Renaissance Studies
- Middle Eastern Studies
- Music – Undergraduate
- Native American Studies Program
- Physical Education
- Student-Initiated Seminars
- Studio Art
Financial Aid: Dartmouth College provides financial aid to aspirants. For families earning $100,000 or less, the Dartmouth scholarship promises to cover the total cost of tuition with typical assets.
Average fees: $66,383 (49,30,081.25 INR)
This is America’s oldest and the fifth most expensive university in the world. It is situated on 32 acres of land in the morning-side heights and was established in 1754 when King George II of Great Britain declared the King’s College a royal charter. The university was the first higher education institution in the United States to award master’s degrees.
The University offers courses in various fields of study; some of them are listed below:
- African American and African Diaspora Studies
- American Studies
- Ancient Studies
- Art History and Archaeology
- Biological Sciences
- English and Comparative Literature
Financial Aid: International students who apply for and accept financial assistance receive an annual grant of $66,350. A financial assistance program would usually include a non-repayable Columbia grant as well as college term-time work.
New York University
Average fees: $65,850 (48,90,496.82 INR)
New York University is the most prestigious university in the United States and was founded in 1831. It is also known as the most expensive university in the world for its costly fees though there are plenty of scholarships on offer for domestic and international students. Let’s take a look at the best majors to pursue at NYU:
- Actuarial Science
- Child & Adolescent Mental Health Studies
- Data Science
- Dental Hygiene
- Global Business
Financial Aid: New York University offers various scholarships and other grants to the students. These scholarships and donations cover the cost of the tuition fees and additional charges associated. Other than that, the University offers private loans.
Sarah Lawrence College
Average fees: $65,630 (48,74,158.03 INR)
Founded in 1926, Sarah Lawrence College is internationally acclaimed for providing academic opportunities to women in the field of Arts and Humanities. The alumni at this college include many known entrepreneurs, innovators and experts from various fields like Yoko Ono, Sigourney Weaver, Barbara Walters, Alice Walker, Amanda Burden, and Sharon Hom. Featuring in our list of the most expensive universities in the world, the most prominent majors offered by Sarah Lawrence College are:
- Asian Studies
- Environmental Studies
Financial Aid: The annual financial assistance program exceeds $39,000, and more than 75% of recipients accept a Sarah Lawrence grant or scholarship. The need, inspiration for learning, and opportunity for successful involvement in the Sarah Lawrence community all play a role in awarding scholarships.
Average Fees: $65,443 (48,60,270.06 INR)
Wesleyan University is a private university in Middletown, Connecticut and is also amongst the most expensive universities in the world. The now-secular university was established in 1831 as a boys’ college. Under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Kirche and with the sponsorship of notable Middletown citizens, it was the first higher education college to be named after John Wesley, the father of Methodism. Here are the top specialisations you can pursue at Wesleyan University:
- American Studies
- Computer Science
- Film Studies
Financial Aid: Most families with earnings ranging from $60,000 to $80,000 (with average assets) are given a financial assistance programme that includes an extra Wesleyan scholarship that cuts the loan package to $2,250 for first-year students (from $3,500), $3,250 for sophomores (from $4,500), $4,250 for juniors (from $5,500), and $4,250 for seniors (from $5,500).
Expensive Universities in Canada
- University of Waterloo
- York University
- Queen’s University
- Trinity Western University
- Quest University
Expensive Universities in USA
- University of Chicago
- Harvey Mudd College
- Columbia University in the City of New York
- Barnard College
- Scripps College
- Brown University
- Trinity College
- Northwestern University
- University of Pennsylvania
Expensive Universities in UK
- University of Oxford
- University of Cambridge
- Imperial College of London
- University of Dundee
- University of Glasgow
Expensive Universities in India
- BITS Pilani
- BIT Mesra
- Lovely Professional University
- Kalinga Institute of Information and Technology
- SRM University
- Manipal University
- Amity University
How to Fund your Education?
Higher education across the globe can be heavy on our pockets yet there are several avenues to fund your education. From education loans to scholarships, international students have an array of options when it comes to funding one’s education and pursuing their dream career. While these tuition fees can be hard to afford, there are various scholarships based on merit, need and individual needs that students can avail.
Education loans are one of the most common ways to fund higher education, millions of aspirants every year apply for students that help them fund their education and allow them to pay them off once the student has gained the capacity to earn. Another way to fund one’s education is to apply for part-time jobs while studying in a foreign university. Many countries like the USA, UK and Canada allow international students to work part-time during the academic year and full-time during the off-season. While part-time jobs may not be enough to cover the entire expense, these are great for gaining some pocket cash and in terms of exposure and learning experience.