Last Updated on August 28, 2023
Life Sciences is a huge field that includes everything from genetics to environmental conservation. It’s incredibly broad which means it’s vital to study the subcategories and the specific jobs available in those fields.
This article offered by collegelearners.com will give you clear overview on life sciences and also provide information on related topics such as: Life sciences careers, Life sciences courses, Branches of Life Science, Life sciences salaries. e.t.c Save your time by visiting our website today.
The life sciences have changed enormously: new disciplines, such as genomic and metabolomic technologies, have revolutionized the descriptive and normative power wielded by these disciplines. The technological developments accompanied by new scientific approaches and positions make the daily practices in the laboratories of the life sciences radically different from life science practices before these developments. New organizations of scientific work emerge and this has a deep social and normative impact. In these new life science approaches and practices, new norms and values are incorporated which are significantly different from the earlier forms of life science practices. Both internally and externally these new sciences have acquired new forms of descriptive and normative impact. These impacts affect human rights, both in a positive and in a negative way, but they also regard ownership issues. We will first discuss the role of human rights focused on the life sciences, and then discuss the functions and roles of the life sciences. Although currently ownership issues of the life sciences are regulated via the worldwide agreed-upon Intellectual Property Rights regime, it is doubtful how far this regime can fruitfully organize life science innovations, both from the view of the progressive developments of the life sciences as well as from a human rights’ perspective. The function of patents and other types of ownership will therefore be extensively discussed. Finally, we finish with a short discussion of several alternative or complimentary proposals to the current patenting regime that are more firmly based on human rights
Issues to Address While Designing a Biological Information System
Life science has experienced a fundamental revolution from traditional in vivo discovery methods (understanding genes, metabolic pathways, and cellular mechanisms) to electronic scientific discovery consisting in collecting measurement data through a variety of technologies and annotating and exploring the resulting electronic data sets. To cope with this dramatic revolution, life scientists need tools that enable them to access, integrate, mine, analyze, interpret, simulate, and visualize the wealth of complex and diverse electronic biological data. The development of adequate technology faces a variety of challenges. First, there exist thousands of biomedical data sources: There are 323 relevant public resources in molecular biology alone . The number of biological resources increases at great pace. Previous lists of key public resources in molecular biology contained 203 data sources in 1999 , 226 in 2000 , and 277 in 2001 . Access to these data repositories is fundamental to scientific discovery. The second challenge comes from the multiple software tools and interfaces that support electronic-based scientific discovery. An early report from the 1999 U.S. Department of Energy Genome Program meeting  held in Oakland, California identified these challenges with the following statement:
Genome-sequencing projects are producing data at a rate exceeding current analytical and data-management capabilities. Additionally, some current computing problems are expected to scale up exponentially as the data increase
life sciences courses
The life sciences are the study of living organisms. They deal with every aspect of living organisms, from the biology of cells, to the biology of individual organisms, to how these organisms interact with other organisms and their environment.
The life sciences are so complex that most scientists focus on just one or two subspecialties. If you want to study insects, what would you be called? An entomologist. If you want to study the tiny things that give us the flu, then you need to enter the field of virology, the study of viruses.
|Marine biology||Organisms living in oceans|
|Freshwater biology||Organisms living in and around freshwater lakes, streams, rivers, ponds, etc.|
|Taxonomy||The classification of organisms|
|Cell biology||Cells and their structures/functions|
|Anatomy||Structures of animals|
|Morphology||Form and structure of living organisms|
|Physiology||Physical and chemical functions of tissues and organs|
|Immunology||Mechanisms inside organisms that protect them from disease and infection|
|Neuroscience||The nervous system|
|Developmental biology and embryology||Growth and development of plants and animals|
|Genetics||Genetic makeup of living organisms and heredity|
|Biochemistry||Chemistry of living organisms|
|Molecular biology||Nucleic acids and proteins|
|Epidemiology||How diseases arise and spread|
|Evolution||The changing of species over time|
|Ecology||How various organisms interact with their environments|
|Biogeography||Distribution of living organisms|
|Population biology||The biodiversity, evolution, and environmental biology of populations of organisms|
During the study of the life sciences, you will study cell biology, genetics, molecular biology, botany, microbiology, zoology, evolution, ecology, and physiology. Cell biology is the study of cellular structure and function (Figure below). Genetics is the study of heredity, which is the passing of traits (and genes) from one generation to the next. Molecular biology is the study of molecules, such as DNA and proteins. Ecologists study ecosystems, which are made of both living and nonliving parts of the environment. A botanist may work in a botanical garden, where plant life can be studied.
life sciences careers
Life science is the scientific study of living things, including plants, animals, humans and microorganisms like bacteria. Those pursuing careers in the life sciences typically have degrees in biology, ecology, environmental science, life science or a related subject like chemistry. Careers in the life sciences are diverse and can apply to many industries. For example, these scientists may work in agriculture and food science, conservation and environmental advocacy or medicine and bioengineering. Since it’s such a diverse field, those looking to start a career in life science have many options, including opportunities for remote or work-from-home jobs.
11 careers in life science
Here are some careers in the life sciences, including some that you can do from home:
1. Laboratory technician
National average salary: $50,975 per year
Primary duties: A laboratory technician is an entry-level research associate who assists other laboratory personnel in their work. Typically, they’re responsible for maintaining lab equipment, setting up equipment, running tests and recording data. Candidates interested in becoming lab technicians need at least a two-year degree in laboratory science. They may also earn certificates that qualify them to perform specialized research techniques. For those who want to work in biological research, enjoy working in a laboratory environment and wish to conduct scientific studies under the direction of senior research facilitators, a lab technician job can be a great career option.
2. Technical writer
National average salary: $58,069 per year
Primary duties: Technical writers develop written materials like instruction manuals, guides and scientific articles that inform or instruct the reader on a particular subject. For example, technical writers can work in specialized roles creating instructional materials for engineers, writing manuals that teach patients how to self-administer medications or as content creators for general-interest science magazines. Writers in these roles perform duties like researching information, writing content, creating diagrams and editing written materials before publishing them. Technical writers in life science write on topics related to biology, medicine and ecology. These professionals may work in-house or as freelancers, and many work remotely.
National average salary: $67,768 per year
Primary duties: A microbiologist is a scientist who specializes in studying microscopic organisms like bacteria, fungi, algae and viruses. These researchers can work in various industries and may study topics such as pathology, epidemiology and ecology as they relate to learning about the pathogens that cause illness or exist in natural environments. Depending on their level of education or experience, microbiologists may work as research assistants, associates or principal investigators. They may also work as consultants for private companies or government policymakers.
4. Medical sales representative
National average salary: $67,803 per year
Primary duties: Medical sales representatives sell medical supplies and equipment to health care professionals like physicians or to medical facilities like clinics and hospitals. Many medical sales representatives have a background as health care practitioners, qualifying them to recommend products and equipment that help medical providers care for their patients. A medical sales representative has extensive knowledge of different types of medical equipment and pharmaceuticals. They consult with care providers to understand the needs of their facilities and patients so they can recommend the right equipment for their clients. Many medical sales representatives travel or meet with clients remotely.
5. Wildlife biologist
National average salary: $69,213 per year
Primary duties: A wildlife biologist is an animal scientist who studies the behaviors and physical attributes of wild animals. Some wildlife biologists work in the field and travel to remote locations to study animals in their natural habitats. Others work in settings like zoos or laboratories where they research animals in captivity. Through their research, wildlife biologists often seek to understand, preserve and advocate for animal species. These researchers look at how animals interact with their ecosystems, what biological features different species possess and how human activities affect wild animals. Most wildlife biologists have a bachelor’s degree or higher in their field.
6. Data manager
National average salary: $76,469 per year
Primary duties: Data managers have an important job that involves building systems to store, process and protect data. Those who have a background in the life sciences typically have experience gathering and analyzing the data collected through scientific research. They may apply their expertise to creating data management systems for other researchers, or they may oversee the implementation of data management systems at research facilities. For those who love technology and research, becoming a data manager for a life science research institution can be a rewarding career option. Many data managers have a master’s degree or higher in data management.
National average salary: $79,048 per year
Primary duties: An ecologist is a researcher who specializes in studying nature and natural environments. These scientists look at how plant species, microorganisms, animals and humans interact and influence the ecosystem. Ecologists can work in diverse industries, including agriculture, botany, toxicology, zoology and urban planning and development. They may work in a primarily research-oriented role, or they can work as consultants who meet with government policymakers and private business owners to create laws and guidelines that reduce the environmental impacts of human activities. Ecologists typically have a bachelor’s or higher degree in ecology or a related life science subject like environmental science.
8. Biomedical engineer
National average salary: $80,761 per year
Primary duties: Biomedical engineers apply scientific principles to developing new medical devices and technologies. They research innovative solutions to problems in the medical industry, whether it’s developing specialized equipment that helps physicians perform their work or designing medical devices that improve the health and well-being of patients. Biomedical engineers achieve a high level of expertise in their field, allowing them to conduct research, design prototypes, test new inventions and market them in the medical industry. These specialists usually have at least a bachelor’s in biomedical engineering, though many pursue advanced degrees like a master’s or doctorate so they can conduct independent research.
9. Chemical engineer
National average salary: $80,971 per year
Primary duties: A chemical engineer is a scientist who uses their knowledge of chemical, physical and biological processes to develop chemical compounds and solve problems in various industries. For example, a chemical engineer may work for a private company to test the impact of certain chemical compounds on organic matter. A chemical engineer in this position uses their expertise to test the safety of chemical components and determine how exposure to these compounds affects living organisms. Having a background in the life sciences can benefit chemical engineers by providing them with knowledge of the chemical processes that support biological functions.
10. Clinical research associate
National average salary: $91,895 per year
Primary duties: Clinical research associates conduct clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of emerging medical treatments. Depending on their area of specialty, they may work in pharmaceuticals, pathology, forensics, diagnostics or other areas of medical intervention research. Associates typically work under the direction of a lead researcher or principal investigator. They conduct tests to investigate the effectiveness of medical interventions, collect data and report the results for the lead researcher to interpret. Research associates may have other responsibilities like cleaning the lab between trials and maintaining laboratory equipment. Professionals in this field typically have a bachelor’s or higher degree in their specialty.
5 Central Themes of Biology
All life-forms consist of at least one cell. In the 17th century, scientists Robert Hooke and Anton von Leeuwenhoek observed cells and noted their characteristics under microscopes. These and subsequent observations led to the formation of the cell theory, stating that cells make up all life, carry out all biological processes and can only come from other cells. All cells contain genetic material and other structures floating in a jelly-like matrix, acquire energy from their surroundings, and are enveloped in protection from the external environment.
Interactions Between Organisms
Organisms don’t exist in vacuums. Each living thing has uniquely adapted to a particular habitat and developed specific relationships with other organisms in the same area.
In ecosystems, plants use light energy from the sun to make their own food, which becomes a source of energy for other organisms that consume the plants. Other creatures eat these plant-eating organisms and receive the energy. When plants and animals die, their energy flow doesn’t stop; instead, the energy transfers to the soil and back into the environment, thanks to scavengers and decomposers that break down dead organisms.
There are various connections between life-forms. Predators eat prey, parasites find nutrients and shelter at the expense of others, and some organisms form mutually beneficial relationships with one another. As a result, changes affecting one species influence the survival of others within the ecosystem.
Homeostasis Keeps Living Things Alive
In multicellular creatures, all organ systems work together to balance substances such as:
Each species can tolerate only specific environmental conditions within its range of tolerance. Outside of this range lies the zone of intolerance where all members of a species die. When the external environment changes, individuals have to maintain a constant internal environment through constant adaptation. Otherwise, they perish.
Reproduction and Genetics
All organisms reproduce and pass on characteristics to their offspring. In asexual reproduction, offspring are exact replicas of their parents. More complex life-forms lean toward sexual reproduction, which involves two individuals producing offspring together. In this case, the offspring show characteristics of each parent.
In the mid 1800s, an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel conducted a series of famous experiments exploring the relationship between sexual reproduction and heredity. Mendel realized that units called genes determined heredity and could be passed from parent to offspring.
Evolution and Natural Selection
In the early 1800s, French biologist Jean Baptiste de Lamarck hypothesized that the use of certain features would strengthen their existence, and nonuse would cause them to eventually disappear in subsequent generations. This would explain how snakes evolved from lizards when their legs weren’t being used, and how giraffe necks grew longer with stretching, according to Lamarck.
Charles Darwin constructed his own theory of evolution called natural selection. Following his stint as a naturalist on the ship HMS Beagle, Darwin formulated a theory that claimed all individuals possess differences that allow them to survive in a particular environment, reproduce, and pass on their genes to their descendants. Individuals that adapt poorly to their environments would have fewer opportunities to mate and pass on their genes. Eventually, the genes of the stronger individuals would become more prominent in subsequent populations. Darwin’s theory has become the most accepted theory for evolution.
Biotechnology firms research, create, and manufacture a wide variety of commercial products, with most of them having medical applications. Biotech firms operate differently to pharma companies as they use the processes of living organisms to manufacture products or solve challenges.
The global biotechnology market size was valued at $449bn in 2019 and this is expected to reach $727.1bn by 2025. The largest biotech companies in the world include Novo Nordisk, CSL, Gilead Sciences, Celgene and Allergan. Many more revolutionary and promising companies are making big strides in this area and are gearing up to make an impact in the future to meet unmet medical needs around the world.
Medical device companies develop medical surgical instruments to diagnose, prevent, monitor, and treat medical conditions. Medical devices can come in the form of an instrument, apparatus, machine, implant, software or similar formats.
The medical devices industry is rapidly growing driven by the complex unmet needs of patients. In 2019, the global medical devices market was worth nearly $456.9bn, with top medical device companies such as Medtronic, Johnson & Johnson, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abbott and GE Healthcare contributing largely with new the release of new technologies. Leading tech giants have started making big strides in this area, companies such as Google and Apple have leveraged their own core strengths to reinvent healthcare by developing new tool for patients and healthcare providers.
CRO / CMO
Contract research organisations (CROs) and contract manufacturing organisations (CMOs) play a pivotal role in supporting the pharma, biotech and medical devices industries. CROs and CMOs support clients’ efforts to test, refine and market drugs and medical devices.
The contract research organisations (CRO) was valued at an estimated $35.1bn in 2018 and is expected to reach $50.7bn by 2025. With top CRO companies such as Covance, Parexel and IQVIA extending companies capabilities and global reach through mergers and aquations, the CRO marketplace is becoming increasingly competitive.
WHAT CAREER CAN I DO WITHIN LIFE SCIENCES?
At the forefront of medical advancements, the life sciences industry offers an extensive range of exciting and rewarding roles and career pathways with opportunities for high job satisfaction and competitive pay. By working in the industry in the right role for you, you will be contributing to having an impact on global health powering life-saving and life-changing treatments.
The majority of jobs in the life science industry have require someone with an academic background in a relevant medical science subject, such as biology, biotechnology, biochemistry, microbiology or pharmacology. Common roles in the industry include clinical research associates, scientists, quality assurances consultants, regulatory associates, medical science liaisons, plus many more.
Branches of Life Sciences and its Classification
In Life Sciences, Plants can be classified as follows:
- Thallophyte: They have two sub-divisions. Algae and Fungi
- Bryophyta: They are two kinds. Mosses, and Liverworts
- Pteridophyta – They were the first land plants having vascular or conducting tissues
- Gymnosperms: They were the first land plants bearing naked seeds and fruits
The Animal kingdom is divided into two groups:
Invertebrate has the following subdivisions: Protozoa, Prolifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthese, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata
The vertebrates having a long skeletal structure called notochord which is replaced by a cartilaginous or bony backbone in higher chordates. Vertebrates are having five classes in the branches of life science they are the following classes
- Pisces or Fishes
- Amphibian: These are cold-blooded vertebrates that have to return to the water for breeding. They have some advancement overfishes.
- Reptilian: These are the first land animals with the vertebral column. Though they are cold-blooded (Temperature of the body changes with the change of atmospheric temperature) but have a more complex bony skeleton and highly organized blood system than another amphibian, e.g. snaked, lizards, turtles, tortoises, crocodiles, and alligators.
- Aves or Birds:
- Mammalia: Mammals are the dominant land animals at present. They are warm-blooded (Temperature of the body does not change with the temperature of the atmosphere) and have glandular skin bearing hairs.
- The body cavity is divided into thorax and abdomen by a muscular diaphragm, the former containing the lungs and heart. The hearts are divided into four chambers. In the RBC have no nuclei.
- Pentadactyle (five figured) limbs are usually present and the skull is joined at its connection with the vertebral column so that the head can be moved.
The basic definition of life science is the scientific study of living organisms such as microorganisms, plants, animal and human beings. This is the centerpiece of the advanced life sciences like technological advances in Molecular biology and biotechnology.
The life sciences focus on a specific type of life like Zoology (Study of animals), Botany (Study of plants). It also focuses on common aspects of all life forms like Anatomy and Genetics. Here the advanced technological studies like Bio-engineering are also included. Simply the life sciences involve understanding the mind-neuroscience.
Basic Life Science Branches
Here are some branches of life science and their definitions
- Anatomy: The study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans
- Biochemistry: The study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level
- Bioengineering: The study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology
- Bioinformatics: The interdisciplinary scientific field that develops methods for storing, retrieving, organizing and analyzing biological data. A major activity in bioinformatics is to develop software tools to generate useful biological knowledge.
- Biophysics: The study of biological processes by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences
- Biotechnology: The study of the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology
- Botany: The study of plants
- Cell biology: The study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
- Developmental biology: The study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure.
- Ecology: The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment.
- Entomology: The study of insects
- Epidemiology: a major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations
- Ethology: The study of animal behavior
- Evolutionary biology: The study of the origin and descent of species over time
- Genetics: The study of genes and heredity.
- Hematology (also known as Haematology): The study of blood and blood-forming organs.
- Microbiology: The study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living organisms
- Molecular biology: The study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry
- Neuroscience: The study of the nervous system
- Physiology: The study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms
- Population biology: The study of groups of conspecific organisms
- Structural biology: a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
- Toxicology: The study of the effects of chemicals on living organisms
- Zoology: The study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior.
Medicine is the basic applied science or practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It is related to health and prevention methodologies of illness. Here are some more life science branches in Medical Sciences.
- Anesthesiology: The branch of medicine that deals with life support and anesthesia during surgery.
- Cardiology: The branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the heart and the blood vessels.
- Dermatology: The branch of medicine that deals with the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases.
- Endocrinology: The branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the endocrine system.
- Gastroenterology: The branch of medicine that deals with the study and care of the digestive system.
- Gynecology: The branch of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive systems and the breasts.
- Hematology: The branch of medicine that deals with the blood and the circulatory system.
- Hepatology: The branch of medicine that deals with the liver, gallbladder and the biliary system.
- Neurology: The branch of medicine that deals with the brain and the nervous system.
- Nephrology: The branch of medicine which deals with the kidneys.
- Oncology: It is the branch of medicine that studies of cancer.
- Ophthalmology: The branch of medicine that deals with the eyes.
- Otolaryngology: The branch of medicine that deals with the ears, nose, and throat (ENT).
- Pathology: The study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease
- Pediatrics: The branch of medicine that deals with the general health and well-being of children.
- Pharmacology: The study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines
- Pulmonology: The branch of medicine that deals with the respiratory system.
- Psychiatry: The branch of medicine that deals with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
- Radiology: The branch of medicine that employs medical imaging to diagnose and treat disease.
- Rheumatology: The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases.
- Surgery: The branch of medicine that uses operative techniques to investigate or treat both disease and injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.
- Urology: The branch of medicine that deals with the urinary system and the male reproductive system.
- Veterinary medicine: The branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, disorder, and injury in non-human animals.
The origin of life, air, water, and the atmosphere is a miraculous mystery that is unfolded through science. The scientific study of living organisms related to their origin, evolution and biological traits is Life Sciences. In the era of scientific research and advancements, this field has emerged as an excellent career opportunity.
Individuals who explore the vast ocean of subjects in Life Science have successful and prestigious careers. If you have a quest to discover more about the living beings and unravel the biological and scientific reasons behind them, then choose Life Science as your career. One never knows that your knowledge, research, and discovery can someday give to society a remedy to some currently incurable phenomenon.
Life Sciences offers multiple ranges of subjects like biology, botany, zoology, medicine, biotechnology, ecology, genetic engineering, and the list is dynamically expanding. Students passionate about any of these subjects can develop a dream career in Life Sciences. It requires skilled academic qualifications and knowledge.
Graduation, Post-Graduation and Doctorate Degrees along with Diplomas for specialization in respective fields are offered in different subjects of Life Sciences. The fee structure varies with private, government and global institutes. In India, for government universities, the annual fees range from 20,000 to 100,000 INR. For the students aspiring to study abroad, the tuition fees begin from around 800,000 per semester. There are scholarship opportunities available for brilliantly skilled students.
Life Science offers a wide range of fields that include in-depth study and research of the subject. Employment opportunities are present in both the public and private sectors. Jobs in government research institutes of Life Sciences are viewed as highly prestigious profiles. The career opportunities are directed completely on the basis of academic knowledge and experience. The field offers limited job openings and employs highly skilled and qualified individuals. There is excessive competition amongst the candidates and only the best amongst the best are chosen.
The salaries of employed individuals vary on the basis of their academic qualifications and knowledge about the subject. For beginners in the field of research and science, the annual pay begins from 200,000 INR and for the experienced scientists, it is as high as 15,00,000 INR. The average income for associate research scientists ranges from 300,000 to 800,000 INR.
Top national and international recruiters
Life Science is an expanding field in the present era of the scientific boom. Biotechnology, innovations in medical sciences and genetic engineering are leading branches in Life Sciences. Several research institutes and companies have been set up that hire qualified intellectuals in this field. Following are a few leading companies providing employment opportunities:
- Johnson & Johnson
- Novo Nordisk
- Valeant Pharmaceuticals
- Alexion Pharmaceuticals
- Astra Zeneca
- Piramal Health Care
- Nuziveedu Seeds
- Quintiles India
- Reliance Life Sciences
- Panacea Biotec
- Syngene International
- Krebs Biochemicals and Industries Limited
- Indian Immunologicals
Life Sciences as a career option is a unique blend of knowledge, innovation, discovery, and science. From the origin to evolution and development of living beings, the subject traces all these traits and discovers theories that aid the human race and the environment in diverse manners. Embrace the world with your wisdom and take Life Science not only as a career opportunity but as a means to serve humanity.
|Contextual offer||CCD-CDDNot everyone has the same support to get to higher education – we help you reach your potential. When we receive applications through UCAS, we consider all factors and will sometimes make contextual offers as part of our Access and Participation Plan|
|Subjects||A-levels should normally include at least one from Biology, Chemistry, Environmental Science, Geography, Geology, Human Biology, Marine Science, Maths/Pure Maths/Further Maths, Physics, Psychology, Statistics or Life & Health Sciences (Double Award only). You will also normally need to pass the separate science practical assessment in at least one of the science subjects.|
|GCSEs||You will normally need GCSE (or equivalent) Mathematics and two Science subjects with grade 5 in each (or grade B).|
|Additional requirements||Alternatively, applicants with strong academic background not in relevant science subjects will be considered on case-by-case basis. If BBB or higher in non-science|
|Extended Project Qualification||We take the EPQ into account when considering your application and it can be useful in the summer when your results are released if you have narrowly missed the conditions of your offer. We do not routinely include the EPQ in the conditions of your offer but we sometimes offer alternative conditions that include the EPQ.|
Other UK qualifications
|Typical offer||26-28 points overall from the full IB Diploma.|
|Subjects||Including at least 5 in Higher Level science (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Psychology or Maths).|
|Additional requirements||Successful application for the foundation year will be evidence of academic ability in a demanding science degree.|
|Additional requirements||Evidence of your potential to do well in a demanding science degree with a good level of Mathematics.|
Other international qualifications
English language requirements
6.0 overall, including at least 5.5 in each component