The encyclopedia britannica 32 book set pdf free download is a general knowledge English-language online encyclopaedia. Initially, printed editions contained a disproportionate amount of biographical and geographical material but in recent years have focussed more on areas like the sciences and technology. The Wikipedia has provided stiff competition to the encyclopedia in terms of breadth and updating. The two sites have also clashed over the inclusion of unencyclopaedic content.
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The Encyclopedia Britannica 32 Book Set Pdf Free Download written by mostly anonymous contributors, was based on the 9th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Starting with the 11th edition (published in 1910), the encyclopedia was fully edited by Edgar MacFarquhar, who also wrote much of the scientific material in earlier editions. The 15th-edition editors included many distinguished scholars in their specialist areas, but no women (except for one who wrote anonymously).
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About Encyclopedia Britannica 32 Book Set pdf free download
Comprises one Propaedia (outline of knowledge) volume, 12 Micropaedia (ready reference), 17 Macropaedia (knowledge in depth), two index volumes, plus a free copy of Britannica World Data Annual 1992. For this printing, 8036 pages were revised. The price quoted is for Classic Brown binding.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for “British Encyclopaedia”) is a general knowledge English-language online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., and other publishers (for previous editions). It was written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition.
The Britannica is the English-language encyclopaedia that was in print for the longest time: it lasted 244 years. It was first published between 1768 and 1771 in the Scottish capital of Edinburgh, in three volumes. (This first edition is available in facsimile.) The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, and by its fourth edition (1801–1810) it had expanded to 20 volumes. Its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, and the 9th (1875–1889) and 11th editions (1911) are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style.
Starting with the 11th edition and following its acquisition by an American firm, Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal to the North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt “continuous revision”, in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted, with every article updated on a schedule. In March 2012, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced it would no longer publish printed editions and would focus instead on Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
The 15th edition had a three-part structure: a 12-volume Micropædia of short articles (generally fewer than 750 words), a 17-volume Macropædia of long articles (two to 310 pages), and a single Propædia volume to give a hierarchical outline of knowledge. The Micropædia was meant for quick fact-checking and as a guide to the Macropædia; readers are advised to study the Propædia outline to understand a subject’s context and to find more detailed articles. Over 70 years, the size of the Britannica has remained steady, with about 40 million words on half a million topics. Though published in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has for the most part maintained British English spelling.
About the Author of Encyclopedia Britannica 32 Book Set pdf free download
Andrew Bell (1726–1809) was a Scottish engraver and printer, who co-founded Encyclopædia Britannica with Colin Macfarquhar.
Bell was born in Edinburgh in 1726, his father a baker. He had little formal education and was apprenticed to the engraver Richard Cooper. Bell was a colourful Scot. His height was 4-foot 6; he had crooked legs and an enormous nose that he would sometimes augment with a paper-mache version whenever anyone stared at his natural nose. Bell began work as an engraver of crests, names, etc. on dog collars. Despite his small stature, he deliberately rode the tallest horse available in Edinburgh, dismounting by a ladder to the cheers of onlookers.
He married Anne Wake who was the daughter of an excise officer in 1756. She was apparently the granddaughter of the artist Andrew Crosbie and through this connection, Bell inherited many of Crosbie’s paintings.
Bell produced almost all of the copperplate engravings for the 1st-4th editions of the Britannica: 160 for the 1st, 340 for the 2nd, 542 for the 3rd, and 531 for the 4th. By contrast, the 50 plates of the Supplement to the 3rd edition were engraved by D. Lizars.
After Macfarquhar died in 1793, Bell bought out his heirs and became sole owner of the Britannica until his own death in 1809. He quarrelled with his son-in-law, Thomson Bonar, and refused to speak with him for the last ten years of his life.