difference between java and python

Java vs Python Comparison | Which One You Should Learn? | Edureka

Java and Python are two of the most popular programming languages to write codes. They are different from each other in terms of their syntax, and they have different purposes as well. However, they both support object-oriented programming in the underlying languages. Additionally, this article provides a brief overview of Java vs. Python

Java and Python are used for different purposes. Both the programming languages have similarities as well as differences between java and python. This article explores the closest/parallel features of Java and Python. Like java, Python is an object-oriented programming language also supports procedural, functional and imperative styles of programming whereas Java is purely object oriented programming language.

difference between java and python

What is Java?

Java is a multi-platform, object-oriented, and network-centric, programming language. It is among the most used programming language. It also used as a computing platform, and it was first released by Sun Microsystem in 1995. It was later acquired by Oracle Corporation.

In this Java vs Python tutorial, you will learn:

What is Python?

Python is a high-level object-oriented programming language. It has built-in data structures, combined with dynamic binding and typing, which makes it an ideal choice for rapid application development. Python also offers support for modules and packages, which allows system modularity and code reuse.

It is one of the fastest programming languages as it requires very few lines of code. Its emphasis is on readability and simplicity, which make it a great choice for beginners.

KEY DIFFERENCES

  • Java is a compiled+ interpreted Language whereas Python is an Interpreted Language
  • Java is statically typed whereas Python is dynamically typed
  • Java has a complex learning curve whereas Python is easy to learn and use
  • Java is a multi-platform, object-oriented, and network-centric, programming language whereas Python is a high-level object-oriented programming language.
  • Java takes 10 lines of code to read from a file while Python only needs 2 lines of code.
  • Java language uses curly braces to define the beginning and end of each function and class definition, whereas Python uses indentation to separate code into separate blocks.
  • In Java, multiple inheritances is partially done through interfaces, whereas Python supports both single and multiple inheritances.
  • Java offers limited string related functions, whereas Python offers lots of string related functions.
  • Java program can run on any computer or mobile device which is able to run the Java virtual machine (JVM) while Python programs need an interpreter installed on the target machine to translate Python code. Compared to Java, Python is less portable.
  • Java is best for Desktop GUI apps, Embed Systems, Web application services, whereas Python is excellent for scientific and numeric computing, Machine learning apps,more.
  • Java offers stable connectivity, while Python offers weak connectivity.

Technical Differences Between Python and Java

While Java and Python are both high-level OO languages, there are some important differences between them. Arguably the biggest is that Python is interpreted while Java is compiled. An interpreted language is one that can be run line-by-line, while a compiled language has to be translated into bytecode before it can be executed.

Java specifically compiles down to what is called the Java virtual machine, a kind of abstract virtual ‘computer’. Other languages, like Ruby, Scala, and even Python can be compiled down to the Java Virtual Machine, which allows for an astonishing degree of cross platform support.

A common, related question is whether Python or Java is faster. One of the tradeoffs for being a compiled language is that Java code tends to be faster than Python code, even when compile time is taken into account.

Java’s famous ‘just-in-time compiler’ performs compilation steps only when they need to be run. This, along with features like support for concurrency, is one of the things that makes Java an excellent language for compute-intensive tasks. 

Type of Programming Language

Both Python and Java are high-level programming languages. But Python is an interpreted programming language. The developers have to use operating system specific Python interpreters to execute the Python code directly. They even have option to choose from several implementations of the programming language. On the other hand, Java is a compiled programming language. The Java code is initially compiled into bytecode that runs on any device or platform with Java Virtual Machine. The developers can further port the compiled Java code from one platform to another seamlessly.

Performance and Speed

Both Java and Python lack the optimal speed required to facilitate high performance computing. But Java Virtual Machine (JVM) speeds up Java code execution through just-in-time (JIT) compilation. The JIT compiler compiles the bytecode to native machine code more quickly. Also, Java makes software applications run faster by supporting concurrency. On the other hand, the developers can accelerate Python code execution through several implementations of the programming language. For instance, they can use Jython to compile the Python code into Java bytecode, and Cython to compile the Python code into C/C++ code. The multiple implementations help programmers to optimize execution speed of Python applications.

Code Readability

Unlike Java, Python emphasizes explicitly on code readability. It even enables programmers to keep the code base clean, readable, and concise. Many developers prefer Python to other programming languages to avoid writing additional code and keep applications maintainable. Each new version of Java comes with a number of new language features to simplify software development. Java 9 helps developers to accelerate software development and maintenance by structuring the software applications with modules. Each module is further designed as a reusable collection of code. But the developers have to put extra time and effort to keep the Java code organized and maintainable.

Machine Learning and Data Science

Python is used widely by enterprises for scientific computing, big data, and artificial intelligence projects. Also, it is currently most preferred programming language for machine learning and data science. A large percentage of data scientists and machine learning programmers even prefer Python to Java while working on sentiment analysis. However, many machine learning programmers opt for Java while they work on projects related to network security, cyber attack prevention, and fraud detection.

Standard Library

While writing code in Python, the programmers can take advantage of its large and comprehensive standard library. The Python libraries make it easier for programmers to write a variety of software applications and complete a number of software development tasks. The developers even have option to choose from over 130000 Python packages including graphical user interface, database, multimedia, web frameworks, testing frameworks, automation, system administration, text processing, image processing and scientific computing. At the same time, Java also allows developers to choose from a wide range of libraries according to their specific needs. The developers can even choose from core, integration, and user interface libraries. However, Python still scores over Java in the category of standard library.

Java vs Python for Data Science

Python for Data Science

Python is simply the standard language for doing data science today. While there are places like academia where R might by more popular, and languages like Scala and Java are indeed better for certain tasks, you’d be hard pressed to find many data science roles that don’t expect you to be proficient in Python. 

Java for Data Science 

If Python were taken off the table and I were forced to name a 2nd-most-popular data science language, it would probably be Java. I’ll even go further and say that there are absolutely domains, like extracting truly enormous amounts of data, in which the fact that Java is a compiled language makes it the better choice. 

Python vs Java: Machine Learning

Python for Machine Learning

Given the virtues enumerated above, it’s no shock that Python has found widespread adoption in the machine learning community. Using Python for machine learning can boil down to building actual algorithms in raw Python, or doing the same thing with a popular library like Sklearn or TensorFlow.  

Java for Machine Learning

One reason to use Java for machine learning is simply because there is so much of it around. Many companies have huge Java codebases, and much of the open-source stack for processing big data is written in Java. This means that Java-based machine learning projects will likely be easier to integrate with existing repositories.

syntax difference between java and python

Because Python is an interpreted language, its syntax is more concise than Java, making getting started easier and testing programs on the fly quick and easy. You can enter lines right in the terminal, where Java needs to compile the whole program in order to run.

java vs python jobs

There are plenty of Python jobs available, and more springing up all the time. The payoff for learning Python, therefore, could be extremely good.

Python is known for its famously straightforward syntax and consequently being easier to read than many other languages; I’m not sure it’s quite as natural as a language like Ruby, but it’s up there.

Because of this, coders have taken Python and expanded it into something that’s almost a platform. There are 3rd-party Python libraries to do almost everything, and Python frameworks for everything from systems programming to game development. 

similarities between java and python

Java and Python have many similarities. Both languages have strong cross-platform support and extensive standard libraries. They both treat (nearly) everything as objects. Both languages compile to bytecode, but Python is (usually) compiled at runtime. They are both members of the Algol family, although Python deviates further from C/C++ than Java does

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