Howard Gardner Frames Of Mind The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences Pdf

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Howard Gardner Frames Of Mind The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences Pdf

Gardner Frames Of Mind The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences Pdf

In his book Frames of Mind, Gardner presents a theory of multiple intelligences. In this theory, he argues that intelligence is not a single entity but rather it can be classified in many different ways. He also contends that some people may possess more than one type of intelligence and some may have none at all. He also states that the types of intelligence are independent from each other, so they can be present or absent in an individual at different times or combinations.

Gardner’s theory is based on seven different types of “intelligences”: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal. He argues that people may have varying degrees of each type of intelligence or just a few types that are dominant over others. For example, some people may be very good at math but not so good at music while others may be able to sing beautifully but would have trouble solving problems with numbers (Gardner Frames Of Mind The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences Pdf).

Gardner, who was an American psychologist, proposed that there are multiple types of intelligence, and that each type is developed differently. He argued that these intelligences are not fixed, but can be developed throughout one’s life.

The theory of multiple intelligences includes eight different types: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal and intrapersonal. Each type of intelligence has its own set of strengths and weaknesses.

Linguistic intelligence refers to the ability to use words effectively in oral or written communication. Someone with high linguistic intelligence may enjoy writing poetry or telling stories. They may also have a talent for public speaking or debate. Logical-mathematical intelligence refers to the ability to solve problems using logic and numbers. People with high logical-mathematical intelligence tend to excel in mathematics and science classes in school because they quickly grasp concepts like fractions or chemical reactions. Spatial intelligence refers to an individual’s ability to visualize objects in space such as maps or diagrams; this type of intelligence is often found among architects or painters who must envision what their work will look like before it

Howard Gardner is a developmental psychologist and professor at Harvard University. He is best known for his theory of multiple intelligences, which he first published in 1983. The theory is based on the idea that every individual has different ways of understanding and processing information, which can be broken down into eight different categories:

  1. Logical-mathematical intelligence (the ability to think logically and solve problems using numbers)
  2. Spatial intelligence (the ability to visualize things spatially and mentally manipulate them)
  3. Linguistic intelligence (the ability to use language well)
  4. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (the ability to use one’s body well) – this includes being able to dance or play sports well or being able to draw or build things with your hands well
  5. Musical intelligence (the ability to appreciate music, sing or play an instrument)
  6. Interpersonal intelligence (the ability to understand other people’s perspectives and empathize with them) – this may include being good at sales because you know how others feel when they purchase something from you; it could also include being good at counseling because you know what someone else needs even though they are not saying anything directly about it themselves yet

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Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

A revolutionary challenge to the widely held notion that intelligence is a single general capacity possessed by every individual to a greater or lesser extent. Gardner’s trailblazing book revolutionized the worlds of education and psychology by positing that rather than a single type of intelligence, we have several–most of which are neglected by standard testing and educational methods.

More than 200,00 copies of earlier editions have been sold; this reissue includes a new introduction by the author to mark the twenty-first birthday of this remarkable book.

This is one of those books on which many people opine who have not actually read it. Accordingly, we tend to see people scorning the theory of multiple intelligences, arguing that really “these are just skills rather than separate intelligences”. As you may imagine, this book, the harbinger of the theory in 1983, goes rather further in delineating what we can call an intelligence by looking at our history of understanding intelligence and trying to come to a picture of what could really constitute a discrete intelligence.

As he writes:

“Gall proposed other pregnant ideas, among them this fascinating claim: there do not exist general mental powers, such as perception, memory, and attention; but, rather, there exist different forms of perception, memory, and the like for each of the several intellectual faculties, such as language, music, or vision.”

Essentially, Gardner’s view is that

“creativity should be thought of as emerging from the interactions of three nodes: the individual with his or her own profile of competences and values; the domains available for study and mastery within a culture; and the judgments rendered by the field that is deemed competent within a culture”

The same way we consider that people can be “at risk” of a particular disease, Gardner argues, “it may be useful to consider certain individuals as “at promise” for the flowering of a certain talent. Again, this diagnosis does not ensure that they will develop the talent”

The multiple intelligences, according to Gardner are:
1) Linguistic
2) Logical/Mathematical
3) Musical
4) Spatial
5) Kinaesthetic
6) Intrapersonal
7) Interpersonal

Gardner posits this understanding of the intelligences as a way to know how to educate and strengthen humans and their abilities, but he also makes a nod to a major elephant in the room: the desire to learn, which can be seen as a clear common factor in high achievers. Where does that come from? Is it purely chemical/mechanical? Or is it cultural or specifically needs-based? Those of us working with MI more as a student profiling tool and personalisation aid all come across the issue of the motivation factor and have to decide on its provenance. Is it the coursework failing the student? Is it the individual’s lack of desire? Is there really not enough time in the day?

While there is no simple answer to this search for what we might term the “soul of learning” – at least not in this book – there is a strong case for scraping away certain examples of accepted wisdom, particularly in terms of memory and numerical skills, and looking more holistically at the human in front of us.

Gardner’s view is that “each form of intelligence has a natural life course: while logical-mathematical thought proves fragile later in life, across all individuals, and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is also “at risk,” at least certain aspects of visual and spatial knowledge prove robust, especially in individuals who have practiced them regularly throughout their lives. There is a sense of the whole, a “gestalt” sensitivity, which is central in spatial intelligence, and which seems to be a reward for aging—a continuing or perhaps even an enhanced capacity to appreciate the whole, to discern patterns even when certain details or fine points may be lost. Perhaps wisdom draws on this sensitivity to patterns, forms, and whole.”

Indeed, he sums up his argument by stating “(s)omewhere between the Chomskian stress on individuals, with their separate unfolding mental faculties, the Piagetian view of the developing organism passing through a uniform sequence of stages, and the anthropological attention to the formative effects of the cultural environment, it ought to be possible to forge a productive middle ground: a position that takes seriously the nature of innate intellectual proclivities, the heterogeneous processes of development in the child, and the ways in which these are shaped and transformed by the particular practices and values of culture.” In other words, a more hands-on approach to exploring these proclivities and capacities, which digs among the subtleties to find what it is that makes us tick better. There are capacities which unite us and are totally comparable (take that, Chomsky) and there are personal applications due to culture or opportunity which far outstrip the same raw material seen in others (stop your smirking, Piaget).

There remains much more to be done, but in the same way that we break down the capacities of athletes and find common elements to enhance, we naturally throw society’s lot behind clearly gifted students and artists, without necessarily being clear on what the result is actually telling us. How, for example, can we teach artists to be more like Picasso or musicians to be more like Miles Davis? What we can do is to try and ensure that less obviously gifted individuals at least become aware of the way their gifts might be skewed, and allow them to pursue their strengths or overcome their weaknesses. Sure, there could be a brilliant mathematician who is “lost” to music (or viceversa), but the key is not to determine for others what they should be doing but rather to aid them to understand their own capacities in a vital and useful way. We imagine that motivation could follow easily from there. Gardner with this book found the right approach and grounded it suitably in the science. Another thing entirely is whether we are able to combine these insights with a system that in educational and social terms is able to give the right opportunities at the right time so that all students may reach the goals most pertinent to themselves. Obviously for some that is not necessarily an “optimal” outcome…

One of my professors used this as a text when I was working on a M.A. in education, and it really opened some new doors for me. I’d always felt that conventional intelligence tests like IQ tests and the SAT were marginally relevant at best, and that a lot of people were very smart in ways those tests didn’t recognize. In this book, Howard Gardner has done a good job of categorizing and examining a number of different kinds of intelligence including some not often recognized by our education and testing system – for example, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and kinesthetic.

Such an interesting read. So helpful for anyone involved in the development of a child. It seems a little more relevant to parent compared to teachers. There seems to be a misconception among educators that this is a book about how “Everyone Learns Differently.” It is more about how there are different intelligences which can be nurtured separately and many of them are ignored.

About Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Author

Howard Gardner is the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. He also holds positions as Adjunct Professor of Psychology at Harvard University and Senior Director of Harvard Project Zero. Among numerous honors, Gardner received a MacArthur Prize Fellowship in 1981. He has received honorary degrees from 26 colleges and universities, including institutions in Bulgaria, Chile, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, and South Korea. In 2005 and again in 2008, he was selected by Foreign Policy and Prospect magazines as one of the 100 most influential public intellectuals in the world. The author of 25 books translated into 28 languages, and several hundred articles, Gardner is best known in educational circles for his theory of multiple intelligences, a critique of the notion that there exists but a single human intelligence that can be adequately assessed by standard psychometric instruments.

During the past two decades, Gardner and colleagues at Project Zero have been involved in the design of performance-based assessments; education for understanding; the use of multiple intelligences to achieve more personalized curriculum, instruction, and pedagogy; and the quality of interdisciplinary efforts in education. Since the middle 1990s, in collaboration with psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and William Damon, Gardner has directed the GoodWork Project– a study of work that is excellent, engaging, and ethical. More recently, with long time Project Zero colleagues Lynn Barendsen and Wendy Fischman, he has conducted reflection sessions designed to enhance the understanding and incidence of good work among young people. With Carrie James and other colleagues at Project Zero, he is also investigating the nature of trust in contemporary society and ethical dimensions entailed in the use of the new digital media. Among new research undertakings are a study of effective collaboration among non-profit institutions in education and a study of conceptions of quality, nationally and internationally, in the contemporary era. In 2008 he delivered a set of three lectures at New York’s Museum of Modern Art on the topic “The True, The Beautiful, and The Good: econsiderations in a post-modern, digital era.”